Qhov kawg boom hauv thev naus laus zis tshiab rau kev lag luam tooj liab tau tshwm sim thawj ob xyoo caum ntawm lub xyoo pua no, thaum qhib qhov mining, flotation concentration, thiab reverberatory smelter tau yoog rau porphyry tooj liab ores.

Nrog rau kev zam ntawm leaching-solvent extrac tion-electrowinning, cov txheej txheem yooj yim ntawm cop ib qho kev tsim khoom tseem tsis tau hloov pauv rau 65 xyoo.Ntxiv mus, rau ntawm lub mines qhib yog tween 1900 thiab 1920 tseem yog cov neeg tsim tooj liab loj hauv Tebchaws Meskas niaj hnub no.

Hloov chaw ntawm kev vam meej mus tom ntej, kev tsim kho thev naus laus zis hauv kev lag luam tooj liab hauv 65 xyoo dhau los tau muaj kev hloov pauv ntau ntxiv uas tso cai rau cov tuam txhab lag luam los siv cov qib qis qis thiab pheej txo cov nqi ntawm kev tsim khoom.Economies ntawm scale tau muaj tiag

ized nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov theem ntawm kev tsim tooj liab.Ob leeg ma chine thiab tib neeg productivity tau nce ntau.

Tshooj lus no piav qhia luv luv txog cov thev naus laus zis los tsim cov tooj liab, los ntawm kev tshawb nrhiav, los ntawm mining thiab milling, mus rau smelting thiab refining los yog hnyav extraction thiab electrowinning.Tshooj ter pib nrog cov ntsiab lus ntawm keeb kwm ntawm cop per technology development.Tom qab ntawd, rau txhua tus

theem hauv kev tsim tooj liab, nws tshuaj xyuas cov nqi xauj tsev hauv xeev-ntawm-tus-kos duab, txheeb xyuas cov thev naus laus zis tsis ntev los no cal advances, tshuaj xyuas cov kev xav tau yav tom ntej thiab kev tshawb fawb thiab kev loj hlob, thiab discusses qhov tseem ceeb ntawm kev nce qib ntxiv rau kev sib tw ntawm Asmeskas kev lag luam.Daim duab 6-1

qhia cov ntawv ntws rau pyrometallurgical' thiab hydrometallurgical

2 kev tsim tooj liab.Cov lus 6-1 thiab 6-2 muab cov ntsiab lus ntawm cov txheej txheem no.

1 PyrometaIIurgy yog cov extractIon ntawm metaI los ntawm ores thiab concen trates siv tshuaj tiv thaiv nyob rau hauv high kub.

2 Hydrometallurgy yog kev rov qab los ntawm metaIs los ntawm ores siv cov dej raws li kev daws teeb meem.

Thaum ntxov li 6000 BC, ib txwm tooj liab - cov hlau ntshiab - tau pom cov pob zeb liab nyob rau hauv thaj tsam Med iterranean thiab hammered rau hauv cov tais diav, riam phom, thiab cov cuab yeej.Nyob ib ncig ntawm 5000 BC, cov kws txawj ua haujlwm tau pom tias cov cua sov ua rau tooj liab tuaj yeem ua tau ntau dua.Casting thiab smelting ntawm tooj liab pib nyob ib ncig ntawm 4000-3500 BC (saib daim duab 6-2).Txog 2500 BC, tooj liab tau ua ke nrog cov tin los ua tooj liab - ib qho hlau uas tso cai rau riam phom thiab cuab yeej muaj zog.Brass, ib qho alloy ntawm tooj liab thiab zinc, tej zaum tsis tau tsim kom txog rau thaum 300 AD

tooj liab tau raug khawb thawj zaug (tsis yog pom nyob hauv av) hauv Timna Valley hauv tebchaws Ixayees—ib thaj chaw uas tsis muaj neeg ntseeg tias yog qhov chaw ntawm King Solo mon's Mines (saib daim duab 6-3).Cov Phoenicians thiab Remans, uas ua haujlwm cov mines loj ntawm Cyprus thiab hauv cheeb tsam Rio Tinto ntawm yav qab teb Spain, tau ua qhov kev nce qib thaum ntxov hauv kev siv tooj liab thiab kev siv mining.Piv txwv li, cov txiv neej Ro pom ze li ntawm 100 lub ntsej muag zoo li lub cev nyob hauv Rio Tinto tooj liab koog tsev kawm ntawv.Niaj hnub nimno geologists tau pom tsuas yog ob peb qhov tso nyiaj ntxiv, thiab yuav luag tag nrho ntawm Rio Tinto cov khoom niaj hnub no tau los ntawm cov ore thawj zaug pom los ntawm Remans.

3 Ntawm Rio Tinto, cov Remans mined lub sab sauv, ox idized, ib feem ntawm cov ore thiab sau cov tooj liab Iaden cov kev daws teeb meem uas tsim los ntawm dej maj mam nkag mus rau hauv lub suIfide ore lub cev.Thaum Moors tau kov yeej qhov no ntawm Spain thaum Hnub Nyoog Nrab Hnub Nyoog, cov oxide ore tau ploj mus ntau heev. Kawm los ntawm Roman kev paub nrog cov dej ntws, Moors tau tsim qhov qhib mining, heap leaching, thiab nag lossis daus tech niques uas txuas ntxiv siv. ntawm Rio Tinto rau xyoo pua 20th.

Nyob rau hauv teb chaws Aas Kiv, tooj liab thiab tin tau ua hauj lwm nyob rau hauv pob kws phab ntsa thiab pauv nrog cov Phoenicians thaum ntxov li 1500 BC Lub Remans coj cov txheej txheem hlau lurgical zoo tuaj rau teb chaws Aas Kiv.


Post lub sij hawm: Dec-15-2021